The scriptures in the Bible which speak of the ‘taking away’ of God’s ‘chosen people’ primarily concern the event which occurred just before the Fall of Jerusalem in Year 70. The following is mostly gleaned from the work of Michael Bull:
Architecture: In the primeval world, Adam corrupted the Garden, Cain corrupted the Land, and the Sons of God (the priestly line) corrupted the World. The Tabernacle served as a micro-cosmos, with the Holy of Holies as Garden, the Holy Place as Land, and the Court as World. Thus, Jesus was arrested in Gethsemane and condemned in the house of the High Priest (Garden), then sent to Herod and rejected (Land), and finally condemned by Pilate in a Roman court (World). This takes us to Jesus’ resurrection in the tomb Garden, the resurrection of the Old Testament saints (and New Testament martyrs) from the Land in Year 70, and finally there will be a resurrection of the saints from all over the World. The book of Revelation calls the Land event the ‘first’ resurrection and the World event the ‘second.’
Harvest: A single seed (as Adam) falls into the ground and dies, but a resurrection harvest is always ‘plural’ (Eve, the multiplier). Thus others also came from the grave when Christ was resurrected (Firstfruits/Garden). But the ‘first resurrection’ was the Land harvest at the end of the Old Covenant (Trumpets or Rosh Hashana), and the ‘second resurrection’ will be the World harvest at the end of the New Covenant (Booths or Succoth).
A good approach is to treat the ‘imminent’ warning texts of Scripture as referring to Year 70, the end of animal sacrifices and Temple worship. That doesn’t leave too many texts which speak of the Last Day, but Revelation 20 makes it clear that there is a Judgment to come. The ‘thousand years’ is a reference to a new house, a new administration (it was 1000 years between the offering of Isaac on Moriah and the purchase of the site by David – a millennium of tent worship; then 1000 years on that site for Temple worship). So the saints on Earth, with full sanctuary access, today rule the world by prayer and charity (love), transforming it little by little like yeast transforms a measure of dough, until the words of Jesus are vindicated not just in the Land (as they were in Year 70) but also in the World. As it was in the Garden, so it was in the Land, and so shall it be in all the World.
Another important principle is that the Jew/Gentile distinction was removed in Year 70. The Covenant “office” of Jew no longer exists. So, no Believer can identify himself as a Gentile. In fact, we are the true Jews, as is anyone whose heart is cut by the Gospel, bringing the fruit of repentance and good works. There is now only the circumcision of the heart, which is why both circumcision and un-circumcision became meaningless. All the genealogical records (except those in Scripture) were destroyed with the Temple.
The Seven Feasts of the Children of Israel correspond with the Seven Epochs of the Last Days, six of which have already happened as we await the seventh and final one:
Sabbath ~ Perfect Life of the Lamb (Jesus)
Passover / Unleavened Bread ~ Perfect Death of the Lamb (Final Sacrifice)
Firstfruits ~ Rule of Jesus at His Ascension & First Harvest of Resurrected Saints
Pentecost ~ Sending of the Holy Spirit (the Harvest began)
Trumpets ~ Witness of the Apostles (when “the Rapture” occurred)
Atonement ~ Jerusalem Temple Destroyed (Year 70)
Booths ~ Priestly Rule of the Head & Body (the final Harvest will be brought in)